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手植记:最稀缺仅有的4种原生态食材

手植记:最稀缺仅有的4种原生态食材

  最稀缺仅有的4种原生态食材

  《舌尖上的中国2》热播,引得饕餮客们食指大动的同时,也引发人们对“原生态”食物的热捧——土榨菜籽油、深山野蜂蜜制成的酥油蜂蜜……各种带着浓浓乡味的食材更获赞“最健康”,甚至直接带旺了各类产地直销的“原生态”食品的网购潮。

  在淘宝上有一家店铺叫:手植记。他们发起了一个全国探寻原生态食材的活动:手植之旅,为生活寻找原生态食材。作为美食编辑的我,通过官方的400电话联系到了手植之旅的负责人.通过和负责人的沟通,彻彻底底了解了一下“原生态”。如何定义原生态,让我们通过以下几点来看看:

  用地理位置产物来定义的“原生态”几乎没有原生态之说

  特有的某地理位置产物,地处长江边,地形和水位,降水和日照,用这样的关键词包装出太多的“原生态”食材。其实在理论上讲,确实是有“地理位置产物”因特殊的土壤环境出土的食材其味道就是最棒的。但往往追根到底,确发现那些特殊的环境产量是少之又少。过度的商业包装,任何地方的食材都被过度到这个“地理位置产物”的标签上。各大超市,各大网站,加上我们庞大的生活消费群体,那区区几亩田地根本没有这么大的产量。

  用特产特有来定义的“原生态”几乎断绝

  我们总是习惯到达过某个地方,而采购“特产”带给朋友送去最真挚的祝福。送健康,是我们注重“养生”这个群体运动的产物。食材被加以健康又被过多的“特产”包装。手植之旅走过的地方,挨家有户遍寻问其“特产”,有的略有所知,有的根本不知道他们当地仅有此“神仙之食”。通过翻书和网络搜索,某些“特产”确实有记载,但随着人民生活水平的提高,几乎已经不再生产或者种植一些不能保证经济收入的“特产”食物。

  包装“农民”形象就是原生态食材之说支撑度不够

  一身灰色的中山装加一除草的锄头,市场上充斥着太多用“农民”形象包装而成的纯天然,健康等的“原生态”食材。通过手植之旅的每一站的实地考察,那些本土确实用“农家施肥”而保持几乎近似野生生长的庄稼,根本就很难进入市场,只能够满足当地农民3口之家的食用。大面积的田地,全都为了生活改种产量大利润高的农作物。经济的快速发展,“农民”的生活也已经节奏加快,社会改变着我们,社会侵蚀了那本有的“原生态”。

  原生态食材依靠自然生长,几乎近似野生生长。实在是遇到恶劣的干旱天气或是虫灾,这个时候适当的人为参与是为了保证其产量。在整个种植过程中,无法过多的参与其作物生长,只能让他适应环境而生存的食材,其实已经很少,和动物的灭绝一样,食材也因稀缺频临灭绝。

  陈集西施种子山药即将灭绝的真原生态食材

  种植西施种子山药的土地需要在5年前开始培育,也就是说种过西施种子山药的土地需要空5年以上不能种植其他任何农作物,土地已经无营养,只有用5年的时间培育土地,而后再第六年种植西施种子山药或其他农作物。因特殊的无性繁殖,不结豆,只能用根茎繁殖,所以种植面积难以扩大,让其珍贵无比。

  对土地的伤害要5年恢复,西施种子山药整个菏泽不足百亩,频临灭绝。

  沂蒙椿树沟松菇纯天然的食材

  椿树沟一个原始的村落,上山进村需要延山路驱车2个小时,然后再步行1个小时。满山的松树环保着一个小村落,十几户人家。因为没有太多的商业用地,所以采取野生生长的松菇成了山里村民最基本的经济来源。

  松菇,除具备一般蘑菇生长条件外,还必须与松树生长在一起,与松树根共生,其生长环境为海拔700到500米的阴坡或半阴坡的松树林中。产菇的林龄一般不低于50年。

  莒县库山丹参近似野生的食材之一

  库山的特殊山区环境,造就了近似野生生长的中药材丹参。

  苍山牛蒡和山药一样1米深土地下的食材

  东洋参,学名牛蒡,又名东洋参,东洋牛鞭菜等。一千多年前日本从中国引进并改良成食物,在日本占据台湾时曾在台南要求当地农民大量种植,主要原因是台南有曾文溪畔松沙土质、北回归线气候加上有名阿里山延脉造就其当地牛蒡得天独厚的珍贵性,台湾已作为蔬菜食用多年,有牛蒡发祥地之称,中国大陆则以山东临沂苍山庄坞为最。

  手植记的负责人最后给我说:真正的原生态食材是少之又少,农耕不易,食材珍惜,请尊重这些即将消失的原生态食材。

手植记
我们快乐&精神食粮
为生活寻找原生态食材

Contents
Foreword by Bob Bartlett page xi
Acknowledgments xiii
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Why Agile? 1
1.2 Suggestions on How to Read This Book 3
PART 1. REVIEW OF OLD-SCHOOL AND AGILE APPROACHES
2 Old-School Development and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 So, What Is Process? 7
2.3 Waterfall 8
2.4 Spiral 9
2.5 Iterative 10
2.6 Traditional Elements of Test Process 13
2.7 Summary 16
3 Agile Development and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 Rapid Application Development 19
3.3 Extreme Programming 20
3.4 The Dynamic Systems Development Method 21
3.5 Scrum 23
3.6 Other Agile Methods 24
3.7 Summary 27
vii

PART 2. EVERYONE IS DIFFERENT: AGILE CASE STUDIES
4 From Waterfall to Evolutionary Development and Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Tom Gilb and Trond Johansen
5 How to Test a System That Is Never Finished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Nick Sewell
6 Implementing an Agile Testing Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Graham Thomas
7 Agile Testing in a Remote or Virtual Desktop Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Michael G. Norman
8 Testing a Derivatives Trading System in an Uncooperative Environment . . . . . 53
Nick Denning
9 A Mixed Approach to System Development and Testing: Parallel Agile and
Waterfall Approach Streams within a Single Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Geoff Thompson
10 Agile Migration and Testing of a Large-Scale Financial System . . . . . . . . . . 66
Howard Knowles
11 Agile Testing with Mock Objects: A CAST-Based Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Colin Cassidy
12 Agile Testing – Learning from Your Own Mistakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Martin Phillips
13 Agile: The Emperor’s New Test Plan? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Stephen K. Allot
14 The Power of Continuous Integration Builds and Agile Development . . . . . . . 93
James Wilson
15 The Payoffs and Perils of Offshored Agile Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Peter Kingston
16 The Basic Rules of Quality and Management Still Apply to Agile . . . . . . . . . 115
Richard Warden
17 Test-Infecting a Development Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
David Evans
18 Agile Success Through Test Automation: An eXtreme Approach . . . . . . . . . 132

Talking, Saying, and Listening: Communication in Agile Teams . . . . . . . . . 139
Isabel Evans
20 Very-Small-Scale Agile Development and Testing of a Wiki . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Dass Chana
21 Agile Special Tactics: SOA Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Greg Hodgkinson
22 The Agile Test-Driven Methodology Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Lucjan Stapp and Joanna Nowakowska
23 When Is a Scrum Not a Scrum? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Dr Peter May
PART 3. AGILE MY WAY: A PROPOSAL FOR YOUR OWN AGILE
TEST PROCESS
24 Analysis of the Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
24.1 Introduction 193
24.2 Agile Development and Testing 194
24.3 Agile Process and Project Management 200
24.4 Agile Requirements Management 207
24.5 Agile Communication 210
24.6 Agile Meetings 212
24.7 Agile Automation 216
24.8 Summary 222
25 My Agile Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
25.1 Introduction 224
25.2 Foundation Agile Best Practices 225
25.3 Agile Best Practices for Small-Sized Projects 230
25.4 Agile Best Practices for Medium-Sized Projects 232
25.5 Agile Best Practices for Large-Sized Projects 238
25.6 Agile Best Practices for Offsite and Offshore Projects 248
25.7 Summary 250
26 The Roll-out and Adoption of My Agile Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
26.1 Introduction 251
26.2 Roll-out and Adoption 252
26.3 Maintenance of Your Agile Process 255
26.4 Summary 256

Appendix A. The Principles of Rapid Application Development . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Appendix B. The Rules and Practices of Extreme Programming . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Appendix C. The Principles of the Dynamic Systems Development Method . . . . 270
Appendix D. The Practices of Scrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Appendix E. Agile Test Script Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Appendix F. Agile Test Result Record Form Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Appendix G. Agile Test Summary Report Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Appendix H. My Agile Process Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
References 309
Index

Foreword
Bob Bartlett, CIO, SQS
It is fascinating to see that so many members of our global software development and
implementation community are at last agreeing violently on the principles behind
agile. It is gratifying to see developers and testers working side-by-side aiming for
the same goals and supporting each other. If you didn’t know what agile was but
could see productive, disciplined, and self-organizing teams engaged in developing
working software prioritized by business value, you would know that whatever they
are doing must be right. Testers in particular have benefited from greater pride in
their work as they are accepted as equal partners in the software development team.
Agile development and testing is a thirty-year-old overnight success; in fact, most
of the younger developers and testers who so enthusiastically promote this new way
of developing software had almost certainly not been born when the likes of Barry
Boehm and James Martin first began to develop the Rapid Application Development
(RAD) method!
Agile certainly seems to be being promoted as the latest silver bullet for all
software development problems; the topic is included at pretty much any software
event, user group, or standards group you attend, and much of the IT literature is
full of agile references. For example, I recently hosted a conference on Software and
Systems Quality and invited as a keynote speaker a senior development manager from
IBM, who spoke of the corporate-wide initiative – spearheaded by the Chairman –
to implement agile methods and processes groupwide. He reported (with good
evidence) that product teams have adopted an agile development method in order to
be responsive to customer needs and deliver software on time and to budget, with
much higher quality – measured by incredibly low rates of postrelease faults.
This is not to say that agile doesn’t have its detractors; many traditional IT
development practitioners will tell you agile only works for small, simple, and wellbounded
software development projects, where the customer and development team
are co-located and staffed by experienced and capable practitioners. Why wouldn’t
a project succeed under such circumstances? So what happens if the customer or
some of the team are offsite (or even offshore)? What happens if the application is
large, complex, and carries significant technological risk? What if you can’t afford
xi

to staff your development project with highly experienced, capable, motivated, and
very expensive agile experts?
These are certainly some of the major challenges that agile must meet if it is
going to be widely accepted, adopted, and used successfully. But in an IT world
where there is no universal one-size-fits-all software development process, how can
agile be successfully applied to small, medium, large, and offsite/offshore projects?
How can agile be used to address complex, difficult, or special-needs IT projects?
How can IT practitioners of varying experience and ability adopt and use agile best
practices effectively?
There is certainly a risk that such a megatrend as agile becomes overhyped and
overexploited commercially. However, the enthusiasm to share experiences and the
availability of free and open tools and information is building the community belief
and commitment. I have observed many times how intuitively people adopt the agile
principles and practices – particularly testers, who embrace their new-found ability
to contribute from the outset and “design in” quality on projects. The enthusiasm is
contagious and the results of agile teams as seen in systems and software products
show what can be produced when there is a dynamic and flexible approach to
achieving well-understood goals relentlessly prioritized by business value.
This book is the product of a number of people who felt confident and committed
enough to document their experiences in the hopes that others would share their
positive results and success. Each case study tells a different success story and at
first you may feel overwhelmed with good ideas and ways to develop software. Just
bringing these stories together makes for a worthy and valuable book. I am pleased
to see that the whole story is told from many perspectives, not just the testing side.
I have known John Watkins for about ten years now. During that time, I have
seen and listened to him evangelize about testing and have supported events he has
organized, such as the Rational Industry Testing Forum and the Rational Testing
User Group – both of which I have spoken at. His passion for effective and professional
testing has been constant, as has his commitment to the industry.
John has spoken several times at Software Quality Systems (SQS) events that I
have organized, as well as at numerous industry-wide events. John was an invited
keynote and session speaker at the Scandinavian Ohjelmistotestaus testing conferences,
and spoke at the Software Quality Assurance Management (SQAM) testing
conference in Prague. He has also been active in the British Computer Society (BCS)
(having made Fellow in 1997) and the Object Oriented (OO) and Specialist Group in
Software Testing (SIGiST) special interest groups (where he has spoken many times,
sat on testing discussion panels, chaired “birds of a feather” sessions, and so forth).
He helped me tremendously in setting up and running the Intellect Testing Group,
where I was grateful to have him on the management committee and to have his
participation by writing and presenting on test process.
John has done a tremendous job to elicit the contributions in this book, but he
provides an even greater service by finding the common threads and practices and
explaining why twenty-three different people shared in success. I am sure John feels
proud that so many people can share in the creation of this book and the contribution
to the “My Agile” process he describes.

Acknowledgments
I would very much like to thank the following people for their advice, assistance, and
encouragement in the writing of this book:
Scott Ambler, Christine Mitchell-Brown, David Burgin, Dawn Davidsen, Abby
Davies, Dorothy Graham, Andrew Griffiths, Dr Jon Hall, Karen Harrison, Elisabeth
Hendrickson, Ivar Jacobson, Anthony J Kesterton, Nick Luft, Frank Malone,
Simon Mills, Simon Norrington, Jean-Paul Quenet, Andrew Roach, Manish
Sharma, Jamie Smith, Ian Spence, Julie Watkins, and Nigel Williams.
I would also like to thank the following people for their invaluable contribution in
providing the agile case studies:
Stephen K. Allott, Managing Director of ElectroMind
Colin Cassidy, Software Architect for Prolifics Ltd
Dass Chana, Computer Science Student
Nick Denning, Chief Executive Officer of Diegesis
David Evans, Director of Methodology at SQS Ltd
Isabel Evans, Principal Consultant at the Testing Solutions Group Ltd
Tom Gilb, independent testing practitioner and author
Greg Hodgkinson, Process Practice Manager, Prolifics Ltd
Trond Johansen, Head of R & D Norway, Confirmit AS
Peter Kingston, Consulting Test Manager
Howard Knowles, Managing Director of Improvix Ltd
Dr Peter May, Technology Consultant, Deloitte
Michael G. Norman, Chief Executive Officer of Scapa Technologies Ltd
Joanna Nowakowska, Rodan Systems S.A.
Martin Phillips, Test Lead, IBM Software Group
xiii

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