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Table of Contents
Preface ix
The Editor xi
Contributors xiii
Chapter 1
Physical and Chemical Properties1
Allan H Harvey
Chapter 2
Mathematics in Chemical Engineering35
Sinh Trinh, Nandkishor Nere, and Doraiswami Ramkrishna
Chapter 3
Engineering Statistics 199
Daniel W Siderius
Chapter 4
Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase and Chemical Equilibria255
Kwang-Chu Chao, David S Corti, and Richard G Mallinson
Chapter 5
Fluid Flow 393
Ron Darby
Chapter 6
Heat Transfer 479
Kenneth J Bell
Chapter 7
Radiation Heat Transfer 567
Z M Zhang and David P DeWitt
Chapter 8
Mass Transfer 591
James R Fair
Chapter 9
Industrial Mixing Technology615
Douglas E Leng, Sanjeev S Katti, and Victor Atiemo-Obeng
Chapter 10
Liquid-Liquid Extraction709
D William Tedder
Albright’s Chemical Engineering Handbook
Chapter 11
Chemical Reaction Engineering737
J B Joshi and L K Doraiswamy
Chapter 12
Distillation 969
James R Fair
Chapter 13
Absorption and Stripping 1073
James R Fair
Chapter 14
Adsorption 1119
Kent S Knaebel
Chapter 15
Process Control1173
James B Riggs, William J Korchinski, and Arkan Kayihan
Chapter 16
Conceptual Process Design, Process Improvement, and Troubleshooting 1267
Donald R Woods, Andrew N Hrymak, and James R Couger
Chapter 17
Chemical Process Safety 1437
Richard W Prugh
Chapter 18
Environmental Engineering: A Review of Issues, Regulations, and Resources 1485
Bradly P Carpenter, Douglas E Watson, and Brooks C Carpenter
Chapter 19
Biochemical Engineering 1501
James M Lee
Chapter 20
Measuring Physical Properties 1531
Lyle F Albright
Chapter 21
Selecting Materials of Construction (Steels and Other Metals)1539
David A Hansen
Chapter 22
Solid/Liquid Separation1597
Frank M Tiller, Wenping Li, and Wu Chen
Chapter 23
Drying: Principles and Practice 1667
Arun S Mujumdar
Table of Contents
Chapter 24
Dry Screening of Granular and Powder Materials 1717
A J DeCenso and Nash McCauley
Chapter 25
Conveying of Bulk Solids 1729
Fred Thomson
Chapter 26
Principles and Applications of Electrochemical Engineering 1737
Peter N Pintauro
Chapter 27
Patents and Intellectual Property1831
M Henry Heines
Chapter 28
F S Oreovicz
Chapter 29
Ethical Concerns of Engineers1859
Lyle F Albright
Appendix: Conversion Factors

This handbook was written to provide a thorough discussion of the most important topics of interest
to engineers and scientists in chemically oriented fields The expected readers will vary from
students in the university to those employed in industry, academia, and the government Because
the engineering disciplines are broad and complex, and growing more so, a wide variety of subjects
needed to be covered in the 29 chapters of this handbook The first 27 chapters are technical in
nature; the last two chapters are not Because technical personnel need to communicate their ideas
with others, one chapter focuses on communication approaches Ethics has also become a key issue,
especially in the last several years, and this is covered in the final chapter As industry becomes
increasingly internationalized, ethical concerns will likely continue to grow, because standards often
vary in different countries
Let me share some of the thoughts that I had as I planned and organized this handbook First,
a chapter in this handbook should differ from one to be expected in a textbook In a handbook,
each chapter should be succinct, providing basic information (including case examples) and indicating
where additional information can be found The topics selected for the various chapters in
this handbook were chosen with the advice and counsel of individuals whose opinions I respect
Some overlap of material on specific examples is sometimes found in two or more chapters For
example, the determination and prediction of chemical and physical properties is discussed in both
Chapter 1 (Physical and Chemical Properties) and Chapter 4 (Thermodynamics) As editor, I
permitted and even encouraged some overlap when the authors were reaching their conclusions
from different perspectives But I tried to be certain that the different authors were each aware of
this overlap so that they could handle it to the best advantage of everyone involved
Second, there have been major advances in technical information in the last few years It was
therefore imperative that these advances be reported and discussed as needed These include
fundamentals, new approaches, and improved applications Much better mathematical and statistical
models are now available Computers have become of ever-increasing importance, leading to much
improved research, plant design, plant operations, and so forth Several groups currently market
important computer models, and these are reported here In some cases, free information can be
found on the Internet For example, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has
made available a large statistics handbook at no charge Chapter 3 of the current handbook
emphasizes the applications of statistics to chemically oriented problems
Third, the selection of an author for a specific chapter was often made after receiving the advice
of others For all chapters, I outlined my thoughts on the expected emphasis that I hoped to be
presented throughout the handbook In all cases, the authors were given the chance to modify my
suggestions As a result, even better manuscripts were received Several authors later added one or
more coauthors, whom I welcomed In my opinion, this handbook is blessed with expert authors
I hope that this handbook will promote better engineering and plant operations

The Editor
Professor Lyle F Albright,
emeritus professor of chemical engineering at Purdue University, is
proud that he was able to assemble 43 distinguished authors for the 29 chapters of this handbook
These authors have been associated with 13 universities in the United States, three universities in
other countries, and industrial companies, government laboratories, and consultants Professor
Albright says his education increased greatly from reading the manuscripts of this book This
handbook emphasizes established fundamentals plus newer developments Although no single
handbook can provide all the necessary details, this one provides many important approaches for
both students and the professional engineer
In preparing this handbook, Professor Albright called on his 65 plus years in industry, academia,
and consulting He first served as a shift supervisor from 1939 to 1941 at Dow Chemical
in a large semi-works plant that produced a highly purified butadiene Several years later, he
learned that this butadiene was employed to help develop a process to produce synthetic rubber,
which helped to keep the Allied armies mobile during World War II He was also employed by
EI DuPont de Nemours, Inc, at the Hanford Engineering Works from 1944 to 1946 as part of
the Manhattan Project
After obtaining his PhD in chemical engineering at the University of Michigan, he joined
Colgate-Palmolive Co in Jersey City His academic career includes the University of Oklahoma
(1951–1955) and Purdue University (1955–present) Sabbaticals were at the University of Texas
(summer, 1952) and Texas A&M University (all of 1985) For the last 50 years, he has been an
active consultant in the following areas: production of high-quality alkylates in refineries, ethylene
and propylene production, nitration, partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, and pulping of wood
His consulting work emphasizes the need to understand the fundamentals of the process in order
to improve plant operations That theme is carried over to this handbook

Lyle F Albright
School of Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
Victor Atiemo-Obeng
The Dow Chemical Company
Midland, Michigan
Kenneth J Bell
Chemical Engineering School
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, Oklahoma
Bradly Carpenter
Greenfield Environmental, Inc
Maple Grove, Minnesota
Brooks C Carpenter
Greenfield Environmental, Inc
Maple Grove, Minnesota
Kwang-Chu Chao
Purdue University (retired)
Fremont, California
Wu Chen
The Dow Chemical Company
Freeport, Texas
David S Corti
School of Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
James R Couper
Fayetteville, Arkansas
Ronald Darby
Department of Chemical Engineering
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas
A J DeCenso
Formerly of Rotex, Inc
Cincinnati, Ohio
David P DeWitt (deceased)
Edgewater, Maryland
L K Doraiswamy
Chemical Engineering Department
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa
James Fair
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Texas
Austin, Texas
David A Hansen
Retired from Fluor Daniel
Montgomery, Texas
Allan H Harvey
Physical and Chemical Properties Division
National Institute of Standards and
Boulder, Colorado
M Henry Heines
Townsend and Townsend and Crew
San Francisco, California
Andrew N Hrymak
Chemical Engineering Department
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
J B Joshi
Department of Chemical Technology
University of Mumbai
Mumbai, India
Albright’s Chemical Engineering Handbook
Sanjeev S Katti
The Dow Chemical Company
Midland, Michigan
Arkan Kayihan
Expedia, Inc
Seattle, Washington
Kent S Knaebel
Adsorption Research, Inc
Dublin, Ohio
William J Korchinski
Advanced Industrial Modeling, Inc
Santa Barbara, California
James M Lee
Chemical Engineering Department
and Division of Bioengineering Environmental
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington
Douglas E Leng
Leng Associates
Midland, Michigan
Wenping Li
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Houston
Houston, Texas
Richard G Mallinson
School of Chemical Engineering and Materials
University of Oklahoma
Norman, Oklahoma
Nash McCauley
Retired from Rotex, Inc
Cincinnati, Ohio
Arun S Mujumdar
Mechanical Engineering Department
National University of Singapore
Singapore, Indonesia
Nandkishor Nere
School of Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Layfayette, Indiana
Frank Oreovicz
Purdue University (retired)
West Lafayette, Indiana
Peter N Pintauro
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, Tennessee
Richard W Prugh
Chilworth Technology, Inc
Monmouth Junction, New Jersey
Doraiswami Ramkrishna
School of Chemical Engineering
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
James B Riggs
Chemical Engineering Department
Texas Tech
Lubbock, Texas
Daniel W Siderius
Department of Chemistry
Washington University
St Louis, Missouri
D William Tedder
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia
Fred Thomson (deceased)
Landenberg, Pennsylvania
Frank M Tiller (deceased)
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Houston
Houston, Texas
Sinh Trinh
Rentech, Inc
Denver, Colorado
Douglas E Watson
Greenfield Environmental, Inc
Downers Grove, Illinois
Donald R Woods
Chemical Engineering Department
McMasters University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Z M Zhang
Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia

Physical and Chemical
Allan H Harvey
11 Introduction2
12 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Fluids 3
121 Importance of Pure-Fluid Properties3
122 Relative Importance of Different Properties3
123 Water and Steam3
124 Pure Fluids with Reference-Quality Data5
125 Pure Fluids with Moderate Amounts of Data5
126 Pure Fluids with Little or No Data 7
127 Ideal-Gas Properties 8
128 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors for Pure Fluids8
13 Thermodynamic Properties of Single-Phase Mixtures 8
131 Density8
132 Caloric Properties 10
14 Phase Equilibria for Mixtures 10
141 Types of Phase-Equilibrium Calculations10
142 Equation-of-State Methods11
143 Activity-Coefficient Methods 12
144 Choosing a Method 13
145 Sources of Data 14
15 Transport Properties 14
151 Kinetic Theory for Transport Properties14
152 Viscosity 15
153 Thermal Conductivity16
154 Diffusivity 17
16 Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions17
161 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria and Activity Coefficients 17
162 Density and Enthalpy 18
163 Transport Properties 19
17 Properties for Chemical Reaction Equilibria20
18 Measurement of Fluid Thermophysical Properties20
181 When Experiments Are Necessary20
182 General Considerations 21
183 Density22
184 Heat Capacity and Caloric Properties22
185 Pure-Component Vapor Pressure23
186 Mixture Vapor-Liquid Equilibria24
Albright’s Chemical Engineering Handbook
187 Liquid-Liquid Equilibria 25
188 Viscosity 25
189 Thermal Conductivity26
1810 Electrolyte Solutions 27
19 Overview of Major Data Sources 27
191 Introductory Comments27
192 NIST (Including TRC) 28
193 DIPPR28
195 DDB29
196 NEL29
197 Landolt-B?rnstein 29
198 Beilstein 29
199 Gmelin 30
1910 Process Simulation Software30
Acknowledgments 30
References 30
No single handbook could tabulate more than a small fraction of the physical and chemical property
data needed by engineers Therefore, this chapter does not contain extensive tables of data, but
instead points readers to reliable sources of data and to methods for extrapolation, estimation, or
measurement of data
We cannot emphasize enough the importance of
of data Much data—whether in
handbooks, on the Internet, or in scientific journals—are inaccurate or simply wrong This can be
due to problems with experiments, errors in processing measurements, misuse of extrapolation or
estimation techniques, or something as simple as a copying error For the responsible engineer, the
goal is not just to “get a number,” but to get a
number Obtaining reliable physical and
chemical property data requires
of data This involves expert evaluation of experimental
techniques (including sample purity), consistency tests, comparisons among multiple data sets and
multiple measurements for the same substance, and other factors such as trends within chemical
families It is preferable to use sources where the data are evaluated and where some indication of
their quality is given
A related issue is
A datum has little value if one does not know whether it is
uncertain by 14 or 1009 Ideally, all data would have a quantitative uncertainty given, which
could be propagated into engineering design calculations In practice, we often have to settle for
approximate or qualitative estimates of uncertainties, but the more that can be said about uncertainty,
the better
Data sources listed here range from those that are free, to data available at low cost (for
example in a single book or inexpensive database), to databases that may cost thousands of
dollars Of course, engineers want to save money, but often “you get what you pay for” While
one can sometimes take advantage of free products from government agencies or academic
groups, reliable data often cost money, because data collection and evaluation require skilled
labor The engineer who uses free data (perhaps from a Web search) of unknown quality as the
basis for a multimillion-dollar design is being foolish if more trustworthy data could be obtained
for a reasonable price
As process simulation programs become routine tools, many engineers treat their thermodynamic
calculations as a “black box” without giving thought to the underlying data or models To
their credit, developers of process simulators have spent much effort to validate both data and
models However, it is unwise to put blind trust in numbers merely because they are produced by
Physical and Chemical Properties
a computer; the best software can still produce nonsense if inappropriate thermodynamic methods
and data are used This chapter should provide resources to help the reader make informed
judgments about which models and data to choose in process simulation, and to supplement
simulation software in those cases where necessary data are missing
Before proceeding, we mention sources for a few areas not covered in this chapter Basic
chemical thermodynamics is the subject of Chapter 4 For polymers and their solutions, the
Polymer Handbook
[1] is an indispensable source, and more on polymer thermophysical properties
may be found in two books from AIChE’s DIPPR project [2, 3] The estimation of properties of
mixtures described by distillation curves (typically petroleum fractions), or of the pseudocomponents
derived from such curves, is covered in the
API Technical Data Book
[4] Many molecular





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