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【手植记】清热解毒 夏季多喝绿豆汤好处多

【手植记】清热解毒 夏季多喝绿豆汤好处多

  【手植记】清热解毒 夏季多喝绿豆汤好处多

  还记得当年《大长今》里救了长今母亲一命的就是绿豆汤吗?这种来历悠久的食物,除了“清热解毒”还有很多值得留意的细节。尤其是夏日,绿豆汤成为不少人家中的防暑利器,然而绿豆的汤、豆、皮功用有所不同,绿豆汤适宜的浓淡稀稠,煮法用量,禁忌人群,绿豆为何能解毒,除了下火还能解什么“毒”,这些却是被不少人忽略的。

  绿豆的功效与作用

  夏季吃绿豆可清热解毒,绿豆具有消暑益气、清热解毒、润喉止渴的功效,能预防中暑,治疗食物中毒等。但是绿豆汤不宜喝冰镇的,否则会影响脾胃,造成脾胃失衡、腹泻。

  中医认为,绿豆具有消暑益气、清热解毒、润喉止渴的功效,能预防中暑,治疗食物中毒等。现代医学研究认为,绿豆营养价值较高,蛋白质含量比鸡肉还多,钙质是鸡肉的7倍,铁质是鸡肉的4.5倍,磷也比鸡肉多,这些对促进和维持机体的生命发育及各种生理机能都有—定的作用。实验还表明,绿豆可能对治疗动脉粥样硬化、减少血液中的胆固醇及保肝等均有明显作用。需要提醒的是:绿豆汤不宜喝冰镇的,否则会影响脾胃,造成脾胃失衡、腹泻。尤其是属于寒凉体质的人,例如有四肢冰凉、腹胀、腹泻便稀等症状者,不能多喝冰绿豆汤。

  其实,要避免绿豆吃得过于寒凉,不一定要喝绿豆汤,可以选择另一种吃法,也就是吃绿豆粥。做法是将米、绿豆分别淘洗干净,同下锅加水煮成粥。同时,如果要单独用绿豆煮甜水饮用,必须煮烂绿豆才不至于吃得太凉,因为绿豆刚刚煮得开花时吃了最凉。

  绿豆八大保健功能

  绿豆作为清热解毒药物,被广泛应用于临床治疗中。在民间,历来就有用绿豆治病的习惯。综合而言,绿豆可以起到的保健作用有以下几个方面。

  (1)增食饮:

  绿豆中所含蛋白质、磷脂中的磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰甘油、磷脂酰丝氨酸磷脂酸等为机体许多脏器的必需营养,均有兴奋神经、增进食欲的功能。

  (2)降血脂:

  研究发现,绿豆中所含的植物甾醇与胆固醇化学结构相似,植物甾醇与胆固醇竞争酯化酶,使之不能酯化而减少肠道对胆固醇的吸收,并通过胆固醇异化或阻止胆固醇生物合成等途径使血清胆固醇含量降低,进而防治冠心病、心绞痛发生。

  (3)抗肿瘤:

  绿豆富含膳食纤维、功能性低聚糖、黄酮类与多酚类物质等成分,可通过多种途径发挥抗肿瘤作用。绿豆淀粉中所含的低聚糖是人体肠道内双歧杆菌的增殖因子,经常食用可以改善肠道菌群,减少致癌物的吸收和产生,进而防治某些癌症发生。

  (4)护肾脏:

  绿豆中含有丰富的胰蛋白酶,可减少蛋白分解和氮质血症发生,进而保护肾脏。

  (5)抗过敏:

  据临床实验,绿豆具有抗过敏作用,可治疗荨麻疹等变态反应性疾病。

  (6)抗菌:

  研究证明,绿豆中所含有的单宁能凝固微生物原生质,可产生抗菌活性;黄酮类化合物、植物甾醇等生物活性物质有一定的抑菌抗病毒作用;香豆素、生物碱、植物甾醇、皂甙等众多活性物质可增强机体免疫能力,增加吞噬细胞的数量或吞噬功能。

  (7)解毒:

  绿豆中含有丰富的蛋白质,以生绿豆水浸磨而成的生豆浆含量最高,内服可保护肠胃黏膜。绿豆蛋白、鞣质和黄酮类化合物可与有机磷农药、汞、砷、铅化合物结合形成沉淀物,使之减少或失去毒性,且不易被胃肠道吸收。

  (8)其他:

  绿豆对治疗烫伤、皮肤瘙痒、溃疡等常见症状有显著效果。另外,绿豆还有美白、淡化斑点、清洁肌肤、去除角质、抑制青春痘等作用。

  绿豆的烹煮备注

  很多人都知道绿豆汤有消暑益气、清热解毒等食疗功效,但怎样吃才能起到不同的效果呢?其实绿豆的消暑之功在皮,解毒之功在内,要“对症”来吃,而且加料的绿豆汤有更好的食疗作用。下面介绍绿豆的5烹煮备注:

  1.喝水消暑:

  如果只是想消暑,煮汤时将绿豆淘净,用大火煮沸,10分钟左右即可,注意不要久煮。这样熬出来的汤,颜色碧绿,比较清澈。

  喝的时候也没必要把豆子一起吃进去,就可以达到很好的消暑功效。

  2.煮烂解毒:

  如果是为了清热解毒,最好把豆子煮烂。这样的绿豆汤色泽浑浊,消暑效果较差,但清热解毒作用更强。

  由于其具有利尿下气的功效,因此食物或药物中毒后喝,还能起到排除体内毒素的作用。

  3.混煮更佳:

  绿豆与其他食品一起烹调疗效更好。

  如防中暑可以喝绿豆银花汤:取绿豆100克、金银花30克,加水适量煮10分钟左右即可,喝下清汤暑气全消。

  绿豆、黄花菜、大枣各适量,以水煎服,可治上吐下泻。

  日常饮食中多吃些绿豆汤,有一定的祛铅毒功效,还能降低血压和胆固醇,防止动脉粥样硬化等。

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Contents at a Glance
Introduction1
Part I: Hamlet Hits the Answer Grid: An Overview of
the AP Lit Exam and Prep 7
Chapter 1: Flying Over the AP Lit Exam: An Overview9
Chapter 2: “The Readiness Is All”: Preparing for the Exam 21
Chapter 3: Getting the Most Out of English Class 31
Part II: Poetry in Motion53
Chapter 4: Sorting Out Poetic Devices 55
Chapter 5: Unraveling Poetic Meaning 67
Chapter 6: Acing Multiple-Choice Poetry Questions 77
Chapter 7: Mastering Essay Questions on Poetic Passages89
Chapter 8: Flexing Your Poetry Muscles: Practice Questions 101
Part III: Getting the Story from Prose and Drama 121
Chapter 9: Reading Fiction and Drama Passages 123
Chapter 10: And Nothing but the Truth: Reading Nonfiction Passages 141
Chapter 11: Conquering Multiple-Choice Prose and Drama Questions 151
Chapter 12: Writing Stellar Essays on Prose and Drama Passages165
Chapter 13: Practice Makes Perfect: Prose and Drama Questions 179
Part IV: Paired Passages and the Open-Ended Essay 203
Chapter 14: Free at Last: The Open-Ended Essay 205
Chapter 15: Double Trouble: Paired-Passage Essays219
Part V: Dress Rehearsal: Practice Exams 235
Chapter 16: Killing Three Perfectly Innocent Hours: Practice Exam 1 239
Chapter 17: The Moment of Truth: Scoring Practice Exam 1 253
Chapter 18: Spoiling Three More Hours: Practice Exam 2 279
Chapter 19: Checking In: Scoring Practice Exam 2295
Part VI: The Part of Tens317
Chapter 20: Ten Mistakes That Kill Your Essay Score 319
Chapter 21: Ten Ways to Increase Your Know-How Without Studying325
Part VII: Appendixes331
Appendix A: Literary Works333
Appendix B: Quick Grammar Review339
Index347

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
About This Book2
Conventions Used in This Book 2
What You’re Not To Read2
Foolish Assumptions 2
How This Book Is Organized3
Part I: Hamlet Hits the Answer Grid: An Overview of the AP Lit Exam and Prep 3
Part II: Poetry in Motion 3
Part III: Getting the Story from Prose and Drama 3
Part IV: Paired Passages and the Open-Ended Essay 4
Part V: Dress Rehearsal: Practice Exams 4
Part VI: The Part of Tens 4
Part VII: Appendixes 4
Icons Used in This Book4
Where to Go From Here5
Part I: Hamlet Hits the Answer Grid: An Overview of
the AP Lit Exam and Prep7
Chapter 1: Flying Over the AP Lit Exam: An Overview9
The Content and Structure of the Exam9
Taking a Closer Look at Typical AP Exam Questions 10
The multiple-choice section 11
The essay section13
All Things Score-Related 14
Multiple-choice scoring 14
Essay scoring 15
The envelope, please! Your final score16
Receiving your score 16
Dealing with the Practical Stuff 17
Signing up 17
Being mindful of important deadlines 18
Showing up: What to expect on test day18
Life happens: What to do if you can’t take the exam19
Dealing with special needs20
Chapter 2: “The Readiness Is All”: Preparing for the Exam 21
Exam Minus One Year22
September Preceding the Exam 22
January Preceding the Exam 23
March Preceding the Exam 24
Two Weeks before the Exam24
The Night before the Exam 25
Zero Hour: The Morning of the Test 25
General Strategies for Saving Time on the Exam 26
Zooming through multiple-choice questions26
Speed-writing the essays27
Chapter 3: Getting the Most Out of English Class31
Preparing for Class, Solo-Style: Working on Reading Comprehension31
Decoding and interpreting literature32
Recognizing style36
Taking Notes in Class37
Reading the Extra Mile: Beyond Course Assignments 38
Hearing Out the Critics: Reading Literary Essays39
Using criticism correctly, as a supplement to your reading40
Finding well-written criticism 40
Building Vocabulary for Fun and Profit41
Honing Your Essay-Writing Skills 43
Deciding what to write43
Construction zone: Building the essay46
Writing with Flair: How to Take Your Prose Up a Notch 48
Choosing specific statements over general claims49
Expressing yourself clearly 49
Proceeding logically50
Spicing up your writing with variety 50
Part II: Poetry in Motion 53
Chapter 4: Sorting Out Poetic Devices 55
Your Link to a Poem’s World: Imagery 55
Expressing Creativity with Figurative Language56
Similes and metaphors 56
Personification, apostrophe, synecdoche57
Discovering Symbolism, Irony, and Allusion 58
Talking the Talk: Understanding Diction and Tone60
Adding Meaning with Sound61
Rhyme61
Rhythm (meter)62
Examining Form: Line Breaks, Stanzas, and Enjambment 63
Appearance on the page64
Standard forms 66
Chapter 5: Unraveling Poetic Meaning 67
Decoding Literal Meaning 67
Discovering poetic meaning with a simple set of steps 67
Applying the steps to a classic poem 69
Unearthing Deeper Meanings in Poetry70
Checking connotations and double meanings71
Applying free association71
Visualizing 72
Listening 73
Considering Context and Point of View 74
Bringing Your Own Experience to the Poem 75
Chapter 6: Acing Multiple-Choice Poetry Questions77
The Devil’s in the Details: Factual Questions 77
Reading comprehension: Extracting details 77
Vocabulary: Examining individual words78
Syntax: Singling out grammatical structure80
x AP English Literature & Composition For Dummies
What Lies Beneath: Interpretation Questions 82
Considering the significance of sensations: Imagery 82
Finding value in figures of speech83
It’s not just what you say, but how you say it: Tone and diction85
Reflecting on the whole enchilada: Structure86
Getting into the groove (or lack thereof): Rhyme and rhythm88
Chapter 7: Mastering Essay Questions on Poetic Passages 89
Knowing What to Expect from Poetry Prompts89
Making Notes and Preparing to Write 91
The Mechanics of Proving Your Case93
Inserting quotations93
Punctuating quotations 94
Citing quotations 95
Adding Your Commentary: Analysis without the Couch 96
Wrapping Up with a Quick Conclusion97
Aiming Your Ballpoint at the Goal: A Sample Poetry Essay98
Sample poem and prompt: Wilfred Owen’s “Arms and the Boy” 98
Sample essay about Owen’s poem98
Evaluation of the sample essay 99
Chapter 8: Flexing Your Poetry Muscles: Practice Questions 101
Selecting an Answer from Multiple Options 101
Practice set 1101
Practice set 2105
Practice set 3108
Crafting Solid Poetry Essays112
Essay prompt 1 112
Essay prompt 2 120
Essay prompt 3 120
Answer Guide for Poetry Essays120
General essay requirements 120
Potential points for essay 1120
Potential points for essay 2120
Potential points for essay 3120
Part III: Getting the Story from Prose and Drama 121
Chapter 9: Reading Fiction and Drama Passages123
Tell Me a Story: Fiction and Drama in the AP Exam 123
What’s Going On? Plot and Conflict124
Plot: It’s not just a piece of land 124
Conflict: The element that brings in all the dra-ma! 126
Where It’s At: Setting 128
Who’s There? Characterization129
Overarching questions to consider 129
What the characters look like129
What the characters say 130
How the characters behave and interact131
Significant objects associated with the character 133
What’s in Style? Tone, Diction, and Point of View 133
Tone and diction134
Point of view 136
Table of Contents xi
What’s the Big Idea? Themes137
The Play’s the Thing: Drama Particularities138
Plot, conflict, and theme 138
Setting: The fine print 139
Characterization: Monologue, dialogue, and brackets tell all 140
Chapter 10: And Nothing but the Truth: Reading Nonfiction Passages 141
A Preview of Nonfiction on the Exam 141
Arguing and Exploring Ideas: The Essay142
Finding meaning in essay structures 142
Paying attention to rhetorical techniques 144
Once in a Lifetime: Memoir and Biography 146
Clocks and calendars: Chronological structure 146
Rhetorical techniques148
Chapter 11: Conquering Multiple-Choice Prose and Drama Questions 151
Attacking a Prose or Drama Passage: A Quick How-To151
Testing Your Observation: Basic Reading Comprehension Questions 152
Pointing out the “obvious”: Literal questions 152
Say again? Interpretation questions 156
Assessing the Role of Style and Technique 160
Identifying the author’s purpose in choosing elements of style160
Pondering the order of events: Structure questions 162
Questioning word choice and arrangement: Syntax questions163
Chapter 12:Writing Stellar Essays on Prose and Drama Passages165
Cracking Open the Essay Prompt 165
Digesting the Passage and Deciding on a Focus 167
Choosing Your Evidence 169
Deciding whether to quote or summarize 169
Selecting and inserting appropriate quotations172
Building on the Intro: Organizing and Discussing Your Ideas 173
The grand presentation: Body paragraphs174
Making a statement based on your evidence: The conclusion 174
On Your Mark, Get Set, Go! A Sample Prose Essay 175
Sample excerpt and prompt175
Sample essay176
Evaluation of the sample essay 177
Chapter 13: Practice Makes Perfect: Prose and Drama Questions179
Choosing an Answer from Multiple Options 179
Practice set 1 (nonfiction)179
Practice set 2 (fiction) 184
Practice set 3 (fiction) 187
Writing Engaging Prose and Drama Essays 190
Essay prompt 1 (drama)191
Essay prompt 2 (nonfiction) 192
Essay prompt 3 (fiction)192
Answer Guide for Prose and Drama Essays193
General essay requirements 193
Potential points for essay 1195
Potential points for essay 2197
Potential points for essay 3199
xii AP English Literature & Composition For Dummies
Part IV: Paired Passages and the Open-Ended Essay203
Chapter 14: Free at Last: The Open-Ended Essay205
Preparing Literary Works for AP Use 205
Adhering to standards of literary quality 206
Choosing works to prepare208
Compiling notes on your chosen works208
Familiarizing Yourself with Open-Ended Essay Prompts 212
Standard elements of open-ended prompts212
The variable elements of open-ended prompts 213
Detecting and Selecting Evidence213
Relating the Part to the Whole 215
Aiming for a Bull’s Eye216
An open-ended essay example 216
Evaluation of the open-ended essay example 217
Chapter 15: Double Trouble: Paired-Passage Essays 219
Seeing Double: Paired-Passage Prompts219
Annotating and Gathering Ideas from Pairs 220
Building for Two: Structuring Paired-Passage Essays 221
The half-and-half approach: Dividing the essay in two 221
The thematic approach: Sorting by ideas 222
The similarities-and-differences approach: Grouping like and unlike223
Practicing Effective Compare/Contrast Essays223
Essay prompt 1 223
Essay prompt 2 226
Essay prompt 3 227
Answer Guide for Compare/Contrast Essays 228
General essay requirements 228
Potential points for essay 1228
Potential points for essay 2230
Potential points for essay 3232
Part V: Dress Rehearsal: Practice Exams235
Chapter 16: Killing Three Perfectly Innocent Hours: Practice Exam 1 239
Section 1: Multiple-Choice 240
Section 2: Essays 251
Chapter 17: The Moment of Truth: Scoring Practice Exam 1 253
Almost Like Drawing Lines in the Sand: Scoring the Multiple-Choice Questions253
Individual answers 253
Multiple-choice conversion chart 260
Clear as Mud: How to Score an Essay260
Essay 1: Family Relationships and Conflicts in Shaw’s “Major Barbara”261
Scoring grid for essay 1 261
Sample answer 1263
Analysis of sample answer 1263
Sample answer 2264
Analysis of sample answer 2265
Table of Contents xiii
Essay 2: Dickinson’s and Dunbar’s Attitudes toward Success 266
Scoring grid for essay 2 266
Sample answer 1268
Analysis of sample answer 1268
Sample answer 2269
Analysis of sample answer 2269
Essay 3: The Open-Ended Essay270
Scoring grid for essay 3 270
Sample answer 1272
Analysis of sample answer 1273
Sample answer 2274
Analysis of sample answer 2274
Putting It All Together: Calculating Your Composite Score275
Chapter 18: Spoiling Three More Hours: Practice Exam 2279
Section 1: Multiple-Choice 280
Section 2: Essays 291
Chapter 19: Checking In: Scoring Practice Exam 2295
Seeking Straight Answers: Scoring the Multiple-Choice Questions295
Individual answers 295
Multiple-choice conversion formula302
A Challenge for the Indecisive: Scoring the Essays 302
Essay 1: Harriet Jacobs and the Abolition of Slavery303
Scoring grid for essay 1 303
Sample answer 1305
Analysis of sample answer 1305
Sample answer 2306
Analysis of sample answer 2307
Essay 2: John Allman on Ways of Life307
Scoring grid for essay 2 308

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