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手植记:神奇的小米君

手植记:神奇的小米君

  神奇的小米
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  在农产品当中,最时尚的当属小米,除了在智能界占有一席之地,古今大事上也都有它的身影,甚至还影响了当今世界格局。- C  J$ _' v! d4 p& D
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  乾隆爷心头好。
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: V- n+ n* b- j" J4 g( J) A  相传乾隆皇帝出巡,路经章丘,西关高如恂接驾献“龙米金汤”,乾隆皇帝见这小米粥色泽莹润,黄澄澄金灿灿,煞是可爱。当下食指大动,尝着果真香甜可口。后又得知此乃龙山特产之粟米,性凉味甘,以之煮粥,食益丹田,补虚损,开肠胃,乃滋养上品,乾隆皇帝龙颜大悦,当下封其为贡米,岁岁供奉朝廷。龙山小米为清代全国四大贡米之一,被誉为“龙米”。, D4 c! J$ ?( v$ n' [# ]# Y8 n
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  红军长征之步枪标配。
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  都说小米加步枪,可抗战为什么靠的是小米加步枪呢而不是大米或小麦呢?因为小米体积小,营养高,而且还很瓷实,吃一小碗包你半天不觉饿,不像大米,吃的再多一会就空了。小米 <http://www.xiaomifood.com/>在任何贫瘠的土地上都能生长,具有极强的生命力。过去女人生完孩子都要喝小米粥,就是因为小米的补养效果特别好,维持生命五谷中首选的是小米,怪不得以前红军打天下,用的是小米加步枪,没它就没有新中国。
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  航天员常吃身体倍儿棒。  X; \! A- w6 L+ }9 W

! o' e8 B0 M$ H  很少有人知道小米粥也是航天食品之一,航天这种特殊环境中食品必须包含足够和完善的科学营养,为此营养学家衡量了上千种产品为航天员搭配食谱。特别是飞行中的航天员尤其需要补充营养,比如神舟十号航天员过端午节就吃粽子,喝小米粥。
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  连IPHONE都怕的手机。* f) k' @5 i. v  J! R- X  ?/ C
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  野传雷军因为爱喝小米粥而将心爱的手机命名为小米,事后还找了一大堆牵强附会的解释什么Mobile Internet、mission impossible、省点儿心之类欲盖弥彰这一事实,结果没被说服的网友就扒出了雷军的LOGO其实是山寨某浏览器创意的故事,成了最不让小米省心的梗。但其实他真的只是爱喝小米粥啦。
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" T; u1 X0 v$ |& B0 p! R  公关经理复活剂。
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  “复活剂”这一概念由农产品电商手植记首次提出,小米的除胃热湿气、开胃健脾,对经常加班、忙碌的广告人恢复体力补充能量非常有好处,手植记对小米高营养和滋补功效的赞美之情溢于言表,因此给予其复活剂的称号,号召所有年轻人在跟随时代步伐的同时,更要关心自己的身体。
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& j; B9 D7 L0 R( y  手植记是由一群苦逼80广告人创办的以快递精神&食粮为主题的农产品电商品牌,最初是为了给大伙寻找一点原生态食材作为福利,后来逐渐演变成一种精神鼓励。为了在房子车子逼婚的压力下,给8090人奔三的路上添一点小甜蜜。四位主创还开启手植之旅,徒步访问农户寻找原生态食材,限量采购发售。
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  ①正是因为有了小米,乾隆才成为中国历史上最长寿的皇帝。+ j% K/ U! N* q3 E1 Q  Z* n
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  ②正是因为有了小米,解放军才打出了新中国。) T" m5 O' N) @  O8 L4 l6 C6 [( J+ x  N

. o1 t% w& ~: g7 y! w) g  ③正是因为有了小米,中国航天事业才突飞猛进。2 s, L- ]) @' X
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  ④正是因为有了小米,雷军才发明了小米。
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  Z+ a" {" s- G  ⑤正是因为有了小米,广告人才不再惧怕加班。
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  手植记6 w: @/ J  X% q8 p: _+ N

" R$ A; O, `% X/ @2 a  B( \, k# ~4 `  我们快乐&精神食粮
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( ~$ s" }% Q2 g" _3 L' h% p% z  为生活寻找原生态食材

A
' ~" k# k/ F% t2 n! t- X; dHISTORY9 ~. {  @6 e3 o; [7 j
OF4 P5 Q$ j: s8 T
KNOWLEDGE
( i0 b$ W& s7 b( f! f5 f+ c- JPast, Present, and Future
& R# J; F6 D: E" ~3 sCharks Van Dorm
+ x* [. J9 }1 r  w6 z. S' @; J1 R: U; Q7 H. m2 P6 v

! J$ n$ a) S8 Y* c  |& ?: s8 v6 v; x# v7 z& M/ ]
Ballantine Books ? New York4 W" n* Y3 x- f& O+ B8 D7 }( q( z

' t3 [; Y- q$ z; iContents5 K  E2 D5 Q* i
Acknowledgments3 {2 \0 |# D/ E- U+ T2 d8 W8 o1 \
Author to Reader
' G& q+ n. n. AProgress in Knowledge xv
) B! U: ~* K9 _" Z0 F, @# S. v0 cKinds of Progress in Knowledge xvi
% B1 G6 A8 t% a- L+ O( I: }' ~$ CUniversal History xvi
/ e$ a3 O; }0 h1 s# f  x3 MPrimitive Man xviii1 b  o% M' k; O; `- A( M
Knowledge of Particulars xix
6 T. P9 ?) ]' r; M& ?% vGeneral Knowledge xix
5 p  {3 g0 e& }; ^( U' e6 iCertain Knowledge xxi, [- ~# N* F8 C6 N% d2 u( P; ]
Knowledge and Happiness xxiii9 J0 g2 j; ~5 q. v9 i. m% n/ U, v* T
Outline of the Book xxiii, F3 Z% Q/ W! p8 Q
1. Wisdom of the Ancients
* ^$ |! }9 y; f% UEgypt 44 u5 T7 V5 K, ^# q
India 6
+ z) ?. I( z6 i3 t7 }5 b1 ^; g! k9 @China 72 n: H5 z- k1 p  T0 B
Mesopotamia 9
6 ?# e& F! o- ^; Y- s; ~Aztec and Inca 11
5 e9 {& D6 V8 r+ k  L& SHuman Sacrifice 13# w/ k  Y9 E7 M. J
Judaism 15
1 g, E" B; F) t0 f& TChristianity 167 a6 R: ]% I4 k
Judaism and Christianity Compared 18
/ y6 p2 T* h8 j/ QIslam 19
& ^; U' E% w& }$ B8 iJudeo-Christianity and Islam Compared
% u+ I  n6 B7 V$ [! b9 [# WBuddhism 213 I# x6 q: I6 B, X0 x/ n  g0 ?
Lessons from the Past 23
7 @. x( ?! b$ G2 s( _! wAlphabets 25* ]0 g0 N6 N+ c+ h$ l
Zero 27: C7 r2 G4 O3 k/ g+ F5 t$ h0 E
2. The Greek Explosion0 B' T8 B- v8 o0 c& m5 o6 W
The Problem of Thales 30
3 b4 M) b3 `! X( wThe Invention of Mathematics:% h5 ~2 `2 e5 q# K& _) n
The Pythagoreans 34: \& i: x& z0 U% j  u/ S3 d5 l
Vll
& b) e1 ?3 x) Y. K8 gV l l l Contents
/ W; g5 L' F. Q4 N, JThe Discovery of Atomic Theory:
  z2 C- x! i; H  J. w- tDemocritus 38
9 }5 m5 Q  i  `9 I6 [* d. ]The Problem of Thales:. `1 |, A% u3 r# M0 Y. k; B( R$ f% p, Q
The Ultimate Solution 41
. ^- D2 \" X- ^8 i2 OMoral Truth and Political Expediency:
, ~" ?( Q; {" ^) @Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle 42
* l$ Q. u3 [' |' @& pThe Fallacy of the Consequent 44
: F. M. e2 b( b4 l, w: dGreece versus Persia: The Fruitful Conflict
1 S) C% a- X0 T5 f8 \The Tragedy of Athens 51
5 c) s+ u/ b- X4 T1 @Herodotus, Thucydides, and the Invention
+ ?$ C3 Y  E/ Q9 h  y* I4 i. i' Bof History 53: l; v3 E$ y. V2 _1 @7 d6 O
The Spirit of Greek Thought 56
! {  D4 Y/ n; @3. What the Romans Knew
1 d( R' v+ S- l6 Z1 A  M# X5 pGreek Theory, Roman Practice 65, z! G% o$ K) H$ Q7 k7 u+ u
Law, Citizenship, and Roads 67; ^& F" v* K& n( L( r
Lucretius 70
' A# {: }( U+ s0 KCicero 72
* S( }- v  m' F! r# J1 w& vSeneca 77
* k; \( b8 T% K" c+ S( }! r, lTacitus 81
% b  c' Q$ W) H! `# r/ e) xWhat the Romans Did Not Know 84
( R0 n: h8 e: V4. Light in the Dark Ages8 x! _; j4 }: G7 l
The Fall of Rome 86+ U' G- P7 F' x, o+ ]6 j1 _& s
Post-Roman Europe 88! S  H& c1 j) u' x; K
The Triumph of Christianity:7 b# K* r  J3 P, v9 ^
Constantine the Great 91# m, `+ ]( ?: Z  Z6 b' X( U
The Promise of Christianity:
% V8 A/ b* k" X4 O" Q( R9 A1 WAugustine 92
% H5 ?+ S' U. H8 |# jAfter'the Fall 95; G. n9 O' T8 T, V! @6 q* _
5. The Middle Ages: The Great Experiment
7 ]( k+ e0 l& {: @0 uThe Struggle for Subsistence 98
/ V5 S3 J$ v$ c+ m* u7 q* F' @7 UA World of Enemies 99  j" r$ ]* {' \0 M; Q0 R4 t
The Problem of God 1005 B* k. q$ }( O
The Science of Theology 100
- y) L( E! N: e' @% OTheology in Other Religions 1024 t5 t+ n; N% C5 {2 |# g
Principles of Theocracy 103
3 d, t& T) n) h+ b, m. `Empire and Papacy 1056 t! J2 [4 x/ ~
Monasticism 1065 Y7 F* t- f0 ^  w
Crusaders 109# ]# j- W, R% x- s2 }
Millennial Fears, Postmillennial
4 f) L" N8 V+ v. Y/ OAchievements 110
1 s/ `% _5 O! I1 i3 U4 dThe Dispute about Truth 112
8 g9 o" W8 L3 }% s+ ABoethius 113
% v. O7 ^" Q* A& q6 Q/ ~- W5 K& W& O6 uPseudo-Dionysius 1132 R' ]; i/ i7 Q8 Q8 i* r1 M8 }/ e7 D
Avicenna 114
1 ~# _/ k5 Y/ k! P% a$ UContents, c% G  n' T3 L7 _
Peter Abelard 115
+ E! y# i9 ]  z" GBernard of Clairvaux 1163 E0 f! V3 A1 l( S
Averroes 117) A# K& U5 Z0 S. s8 c' B
Thomas Aquinas 119
7 B1 K& k: d& l. d. i( V  z9 rThe Pyrrhic Victory of Faith over Reason 122* t* z5 T- p9 ], t/ f0 `
Dante's Dance 1243 G8 o0 Q6 U1 {: I  u6 B) b- W- k- Q: t
6. What Was Reborn in the Renaissance?( ?  r! z# ~' Q6 [
The New Style in Painting: Perspective 128' ~7 b% s' `# F! _, ~! ~* o
Man in the Cosmos 129
1 [$ j7 U, }$ r' u* DThe Revival of Classical Learning: Petrarch 130
2 p9 s) K+ G+ I: N9 c/ p5 _6 nInventing the Renaissance: Boccaccio 132, B( a3 ~. \, E/ n# v5 [2 |7 _0 t8 L
The Renaissance Man 134! r4 K. Y$ e" `/ J: u: G
Renaissance Men: Leonardo, Pico, Bacon 137
* M8 E# }, i8 v# Z4 a% oThe Renaissance Man and the Ideal of Liberal- R! Y: t' k; I$ F  G* t, U. z3 X) w
Education 1412 y3 t" [. P+ i4 V/ I5 x" S9 {8 u
Renaissance Humanism 142
6 S  F5 a: w( ^2 M$ ]( X5 d& o7 kMontaigne 144
3 k3 y5 v% m  J* D) S# N4 D" i- aShakespeare 146% y: G1 O2 w4 [  x' u6 Z
Cervantes 1489 C5 v) L# h, Z& z
The Black Death 151
( i0 Q3 q* |1 b5 T" S( J' `9 mGutenberg's Achievement 153
, @' n5 p$ W; Y' S5 U0 A% ERenaissance Cities 155  u7 b  q; C' [1 J
Nation-States 156
& D# M5 j4 b  vThe Crisis of the Theocratic State 158
! x6 f) N0 D% y5 f* H) G/ jErasmus 1596 c$ W" s; O+ F, w
Thomas More 160; G. F1 y. Q$ l6 `) b
Henry VIII 1610 e9 M4 I- x; b" x. L* L
Martin Luther 1637 f5 w% k7 a) [! l* b/ l8 [9 ]' d1 [
Tolerance and Intolerance 1651 @- y+ {) z5 K* y1 `5 [
Man at the Center 166
- r- S" `6 g' g6 _# T7. Europe Reaches Out
9 k! V' M; C$ ~" }" p' a2 x3 e  UMongol Empires 169
! M2 e: Y. i. \& e+ r! A. l' Q% i! \* {Marco Polo 170$ h, b3 b3 j9 O5 \4 Y
Voyages of Discovery 1723 M: I0 u) j' ^, p# [7 K
Columbus 174
- \+ a- W9 c/ c2 e+ P5 m" B/ ^Sailing Around the World 1771 ^& U9 M: x- s; m5 |
The Birth of World Trade 1781 k& `! b  _* K
Trade in Ideas 179$ Y3 T7 e' b! H+ z/ c9 I
Homage to Columbus 182
; ?8 t! k1 m9 ~) o; }8. The Invention of Scientific Method
" |) |7 J! I3 I+ [+ G+ NThe Meaning of Science 1849 _, `2 J; G7 k3 S" d. t
Three Characteristics of Science 187: t* \- i, n/ ^+ {
Aristotelian Science: Matter 190
! e5 e' {4 U3 k2 I4 ]/ \3 J3 YAristotelian Motion 191
! O# `1 J. ~2 ^" P* y6 V6 m) {Contents
7 c3 G* I; [  |  i" uThe Revolt Against Aristotle 192# j$ t1 l: @& d7 t; K( F  U0 i- W3 N
Copernicus 195
  p7 V9 U3 w1 ETycho Brahe 196
1 F. ]( \! N/ hGilbert 197
  q6 B) o4 d$ ^4 |, H  OKepler 198% S) C; u& d4 y7 {# ?& u0 y% J
Galileo 199( Q1 ^4 ]4 X/ g* J+ P
Descartes 203( X- D" s, }. b9 R- y3 n' @; a0 U- ~9 w
Newton 2058 T! _  u/ X3 r( y* M& ~$ H/ J
Rules of Reason 209# Z& Y1 ~+ Y7 l5 w( m* k% `
The Galilean-Cartesian Revolution 211
: E" l  G- J# ]4 `9. An Age of Revolutions 213
' d. n& c% b+ p8 Q9 J2 Y$ C( j# kThe Industrial Revolution 213
. ~# b6 A* E9 }2 O* u' C# bHuman Machines and Mechanical Humans 214
7 H8 O9 i, X; b# v4 GAn Age of Reason and Revolution 216
- {8 d& p6 J& S& e5 `John Locke and the Revolution of 1688 2185 t, R  U. Z2 `9 [- x: M6 |  g
Property, Government, and Revolution 220
7 ~. \( r! r1 @: ~( F8 iTwo Kinds of Revolution 222' W$ ]) v6 i% O9 U7 T( p+ V2 g$ U
Thomas Jefferson and the Revolution1 }# M4 ~( @6 P9 k/ y6 k
of 1776 223! O' J2 b* B2 N! T
The Declaration of Independence 224
2 E3 l# e& C4 i; }0 C  `, jProperty in Rights 2266 S+ U3 D2 |5 u0 G) p/ o: M
Robespierre, Napoleon, and the Revolution1 m8 o2 W& E) K3 B9 |' X
of 1789 228' O7 ]4 S( F" D3 S' V5 n
The Rise of Equality 232
% Y* J0 I3 P& M6 ^$ n) ^Mozart's Don Giovanni 234" X  p3 f3 \9 U# w1 h- H
Goethe's Faust 238# e: h, S; ]& U6 A9 P
10. The Nineteenth Century: Prelude to Modernity 243- C% y/ h: n' s# m/ P' ?6 `5 ]
The Difference Money Makes 244
8 n1 y+ ^% o: [& z1 V3 Y9 zEconomic Life Before 1800: The Peasant 245
9 L+ n/ O5 Z1 N  E7 H, a5 j* RThe Lord 247
; o3 a) n2 H* V# b0 s- m$ V, [The Cleric 248- D& u5 ]7 v8 L1 w9 i. P
The King 248" }+ B, K# J  E9 q" y' ?- |/ v
The Merchant 249! W, s- ~6 Y$ i8 l3 z# J5 C
The Rise of the Labor Market: Economics 251
, Q7 J% Y4 l1 Q2 w# IFaustian Development 2551 W1 a3 k, h+ x% d/ G
Marxism: Theory and Practice 257
2 S  Q1 h4 |' L" qMarxian Insights 261
" n) d+ V2 d( {& u, h1 yEconomic Facts: Steam Power 2648 g8 s3 |& |, k% P
Equality in the Muzzle of a Gun 266
- X. a* `9 N4 p/ Y1 k. RThe Magic of Electricity 269) ?3 r6 ^. V. E) g
Magical Mathematics 2719 F1 S. n% T- \9 a7 Q6 w- `  ^
New Ways of Seeing 2739 V, h5 }% H6 k# L# R+ x3 A
The End of Slavery 275
/ ^' n: v, i$ H7 P" d- F3 gShocking the Bourgeoisie 278
- H4 D, M$ Z& G: O* \3 sDarwin and Freud 280: [* y$ j2 x# x  ]( `
Contents XI
* Q% T& _) O/ w5 E1 {1 L, C! x+ q# ~11. The World in 1914 284
# s- H, k" }" TEconomic Divisions 284
# H& V. I, j1 T7 nThe Study of War 285  j5 l3 Y+ T9 U4 \- b+ |2 G" T8 R
Colonialism 2872 t! _( S% d: |. t3 {3 r; Y
The Boer War 289
) t- x+ s0 O+ l. j! Z. ^7 TThe Powder Keg of Europe 289
( @/ `+ Y* ?! X- P' qCharacter of the 1914-1918 War 291
7 w5 H, i  k  d. @Thoughts on War and Death 292* c: w4 a) a$ _0 r+ \/ y- `- @
Causes of War 295
4 n1 X; f' i& j; q12. The Twentieth Century: The Triumph of 'Democracy 2974 L2 i8 L: \! c- F. Y0 ?" e8 s1 l8 E
The Progress of Democracy 299
  U% E  V5 v) L- W+ MCommunism 304  D; E2 i) r8 M
Totalitarianism 307
, q" Y9 v# v% }0 dTheocracy in the Twentieth Century 311: I3 o. y, z# M
Economic Justice 3133 a: A" ~8 u, K1 J7 ^1 Q
Why Not World Government? 314
, ^. }# ]  h8 n! uOne World, One Human Race 317
+ }8 [! f( ~  m* N+ V13. The Twentieth Century: Science and Technology 321
" s7 F, S* G3 ^+ m4 ?Greek Atomic Theory 321: ~9 _5 L( c0 [  l3 \
The Revival of Atomic Theory 323
& F' J# O2 r7 \( b( Z4 rWhat Einstein Did 325
9 m1 j( a2 s8 H9 f, p3 U! oWhat the Bomb Taught Us 3277 h: U9 K& y1 D; F/ {8 v8 F2 o
The Problem of Life ' 328
) B, C) X5 w- @1 AThe Science of Heredity 329! ?( w- M2 F( r1 E: u
How DNA Works 330) O* j' t; |/ e  c$ P
The Size of the Universe 332$ V" O% B- D8 S8 n
Galaxies 332
1 i" \, V3 Q8 X' B# x0 \/ C) K  CThe Smallness of Earth 334
# y# f+ w% B" Y( N4 a: m4 G8 UThe Big Bang and the Primordial Atom 334& g% t# w8 P1 W; U
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 3371 ?7 d. R8 Z/ e' F
Uncertainties of Knowledge 338
# l1 B+ Q4 j4 ~1 SOne Giant Step 341' S# [5 o( F, h
Green Rebellion 342) D1 Z2 P% \6 |! V8 ^- w- B" I
The Terrestrial Greenhouse 343
7 Q) t9 V+ [6 y) pDigital Computers and Knowledge 345
: ?7 y. V7 b& j/ e! {Turing Machines 348. f% v" r  @% h" f* D* N
Technological Dependence 350$ P9 N. d: y  K  ]
Triumphs of Medicine 3512 l2 ^% z! T6 y: M3 N! w8 s& C
Drug Cultures 353
: R: ~1 k0 {/ x* }, }1 oThe AIDS Challenge 354- |1 G/ ~) @& h$ W9 B8 S
xii Contents
  a' k+ W  o- T( Y7 a5 f. {14. The Twentieth Century: Art and the Media 3567 j" ~2 Y# r- `8 Y$ U* i9 l
The Media and Their Messages 356
' ?& W9 a1 ?( j6 q, sA Visual Revolution: Picasso, Braque, Cubism 3590 {5 h, Q2 ?0 H8 o
Pollock, Rothko, and the Hexagonal Room 361  S! J% k3 I7 \" r
Urban Revolution:; g& a9 t1 t; ?$ u
The Bauhaus and Le Corbusier 363
7 y; E+ c5 B+ e0 l0 Z; tLiterary Prophets: Yeats 365
2 P1 Z. P6 J* u$ D! ?3 H% ^A Passage to India 366
' @$ F0 U: k& M% S: {8 |& cThe Castle and the Magician 367
& @0 s8 d1 w" u  C6 ?1 VWaiting for Godot 369 "  U# l6 w& t; A, ?5 b$ y( `
Mass Media and Education 370
# x: o4 w! c4 W- a5 N4 R15. The Next Hundred Years 375
# a8 L% R$ G) a2 T+ pComputers: The Next Stage 3770 \+ k6 I$ E- `% D2 ?9 f
The Moral Problem of Intelligent Machines 379% m* r; z9 |% Z& V9 n2 a5 F' I
Companion Computers 379
1 S& s4 S: F' M9 y% ]; e! Z( `5 QThe Birth of Thinking Machines 381$ E& J6 Z* S" I
Three Worlds: Big, Little, Middle-sized 383( w) ]! V' s1 y5 K3 A3 y
Chaos, a New Science 3845 R$ r! G7 ?5 l: r# m
Mining Language: Ideonomy 3860 p  H) C) q( X% e
Exploring the Solar System 387
+ k" H: K) g& Q7 |4 Y8 _* Y! @The Message? 390. V; o. C7 r' e. |9 o' B5 F# e
Man as a Terrestrial Neighbor 392. r5 z8 c' P- n3 n+ X7 O/ d  q
The Gaia Hypothesis 395
* ~" `2 ^8 J' pGenetic Engineering 3972 Q0 {5 U9 w9 x0 ]
Eugenics 398
0 Q, K. w3 d) j* K$ [Mapping the Genome 400
" J8 D- w' o' E# lDemocracy and Eugenics 402
, w$ i! r  q) p1 G4 FSpeed 403
7 v- g# ^! o# c) i7 HAddictions 406
5 v3 y7 o9 }. O) jWar in the Twenty-first Century 408
( a: f8 J$ }9 u0 B+ GComputer Revolt 4106 u# y* _1 C3 S) ~
Index 413
) Y9 N5 m; h& A* J# [Acknowledgments
# B  W/ H1 W' i5 Z$ C/ zTHIS BOOK is the result of a lifetime of reading, thinking, and talking.
9 X5 N/ y5 d) fIts seeds were planted nearly fifty years ago, when I was a student at7 p4 Q" p/ v; d7 j
St. John's College and was introduced to the world of ideas by Scott  g( W( ?' l1 G% ~
Buchanan, Jacob Klein, and Richard Scofield.
6 }/ K% @; i3 r* h+ RI made my first acquaintance with the literature of universal history
1 H5 U, y3 i: i' h; y  Ithirty years ago, when I was writing The Idea of Progress (Praeger, 1967).5 ]) e- h5 k8 }% f
My mentor at the time—as he continues to be today—was Mortimer J." ]# W6 L- G" W- [; T. g
Adler. We have discussed many of the themes treated here repeatedly over. ]: C. T" @4 v+ x0 Z; v( u( T( s% P
the years, and he has given me many useful bibliographical suggestions.
, z# ^) X3 F, kWe have agreed on many points, and differed on others. His intellectual# T9 O5 D6 p# B1 J' w" W
judgments are represented in many places in this book, usually without
& |) c" J2 i( N  Tcredit. I offer it here.9 Q2 P5 `' r, N2 n2 O4 F3 w9 K
Students of the history of knowledge owe much to the work of F. J.
2 a. v0 G2 g: R- G$ w/ _Teggart and G. H. Hildebrand, whose carefully chosen collection of
0 x5 `; {8 |) ?! O; o, hclassic readings, The Idea of Progress (University of California Press, 1949),
1 {5 J2 X# a7 _7 Bis a consistently useful guide to works from three millennia., P% {) c' G7 F2 m/ q  D
For broad interpretations of this literature I am indebted to many
. L- a/ B; q& y) _% ophilosophical historians, from Ibn Khaldun to Oswald Spengler, from
5 U3 J. \, x% h: ]! c* f( E# jArnold J. Toynbee to Fernand Braudel. The last, in particular, taught me1 V% }% W0 G( F. c
to pay close attention to the small details of everyday life, which tell us so+ H/ s0 N0 C+ s* n3 s& l7 ]
much about the way people live, whatever they say or write.
9 x8 J, C3 f6 M5 Q( s% pFor the history of science, I am indebted to various works by James
0 T' n1 _) w; T+ K2 eBurke (especially Connections, Little Brown, 1978), Herbert Butterfield
* a8 Y' e4 g# J" m3 f( [9 C% U+ Z(especially The Origins of Modern Science, Macmillan, 1951), and Erwin! w9 W/ F7 R; y) w7 s4 Q$ G' |$ p( o
Schrodinger (especially Nature and the Greeks, Cambridge, 1954).
, m! z. d) U4 l; ]8 ^3 `0 W$ aAmong anthropologists, I have learned most from Bronislaw Malinowski,
3 [+ H1 d% T/ R; x$ LClaude Levi-Strauss, and Lord Raglan, author of The Hero (Vintage,
4 C* x  C; m( m) O1956). Robert L. Heilbroner's The Worldly Historians (Simon and Schuster,) Q% F' n* O" F9 U) T; {( H
1953, 1986) has helped me to understand and utilize a number of works in9 y/ P6 ]) w4 \; f0 _! [
economics.$ @! f! T- B' y! r! J8 m
Every time I reread Marshall McLuhan's Understanding Media
* \8 Z& c1 E  @$ A& N! [$ X' o8 ](McGraw Hill, 1965) I am again impressed by the power of his insights4 }3 I$ D+ s1 r
and the accuracy of his predictions.
; F5 N! p" x! V5 y( vXlll5 O, l" t6 I. P
xiv Acknowledgments
8 ~5 O! ^% |7 P: ]No recent book about the worldwide experience of modernity seems to me% e8 K) ^/ ]  i6 e) Q
so thoughtful and provocative as Marshall Berman's All That Is Solid Melts Into& w. l) Q1 u& w0 o
Air (Simon & Schuster, 1982). I have not met its author, but I have engaged
! n7 f8 l. K( e" GProfessor Berman in many silent conversations in the watches of the night.
3 \' R# }" E( k  ?# I6 zIt was my brother, John Van Doren, who brought Berman's book to my* i" {) y! G0 [
attention; he also made me read for the first time, many years ago, John2 x; i5 t' d# k8 `2 U1 {0 h1 x
Masefield's perfect lyric of world history, "Cargoes." I am grateful for3 _1 V! c) [% ~
these recommendations, among many others; for his thoughtful comments0 K& M& V7 G& ^0 W% M% j, r2 v
on parts of the manuscript; and for conversations over five decades,
, _0 N1 c" i6 K* aduring which I doubtless got more than I gave.1 o0 w! n  \+ w% A
I am grateful, indeed, to all my friends and seminar students over the
3 k1 v2 [0 U9 e. [! R0 dpast six years who, in the course of discussions more or less formal and7 V+ w! t; D; g
more or less heated, have given me ideas and helped me to understand
: |$ ]. m% r/ S( F0 a) qpoints that had baffled or irritated me. They could not have known this at: r2 Z1 A9 D" R8 ]
the time, nor could I now more precisely enumerate my debts.
1 I2 e9 ~) T: @+ s; [3 QMy twenty years as an editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica taught me
# t. \7 g* e7 b8 o* E  |; Omuch about many things. In particular I grew to have a profound respect not
; E6 j3 Y: _' {0 |only for my colleagues but also for the work that they produce. Hardly a day
* |$ G) s2 T/ J" V9 E1 Uhas passed when I have not consulted the Britannica on some matter, major
7 F; _/ a* B6 ^5 _3 Vor minor. I am well aware that the editors of Britannica have been engaged
$ t' f/ t% b* o: ~9 o( J. d: [for more than two centuries in the same task that I have here undertaken for6 y6 l( E, u6 N+ Y( i& ^
myself—that is, the preparation of a history of the knowledge of the human
7 z- B2 L: d$ b' Arace. They have, of course, gone about it in a very different way./ N$ T/ |9 s' Q( a+ e4 n) h
It is my pleasure to record here three other debts. The first is to Patrick8 ^$ D; u: X4 j1 J8 @5 R5 S& B
Gunkel, the inventor of ideonomy and my friend of two decades. In a/ f% ^, O7 {6 O( N4 R' E& Q
hundred lengthy conversations over the years Pat has brought me to
+ z  ~* ?0 [% `$ k+ Iunderstand that there is a history of the future as well as the past. I have
4 w* H8 d: E3 E6 S0 Ashamelessly employed some of his insights, including the idea of companion
' F0 x* D" y$ U! P' gcomputers (CCs). The most valuable thing he has taught me is that
5 l# b$ y6 ~' O6 U' [: o5 v9 z( ethe future has a hard substantiality and may be even more intelligible
; ?6 j5 }$ R' J  y! C: bthan the past. It is, of course, the present that is hardest to understand.( c& I' x3 a, ?6 z
I owe a large debt to my editors, Hillel Black and Donald J. Davidson,! Y& Y+ W, z" v7 {  f! G
who insisted ruthlessly on clarity and demanded that I write, rewrite, and
9 i: \3 u8 Y/ Y$ Arewrite until they were satisfied I had said what I intended. If the book4 |2 V0 d1 `2 g( O
has merit, they deserve much of the credit. Its faults are mine alone.
  S6 C, ~) i. t/ ?& i; j  xMy wife, Geraldine, read every page of the manuscript twice and made
7 H7 h. w" T; S, L- q1 Ya thousand suggestions, most of which I adopted. More important, she8 n+ k4 \: I: s) V. g
allowed me to experiment with ideas, as I proposed theses that either4 S* k( A6 k/ `7 T0 A
outraged, delighted, or amused her. The book could not have existed
8 {2 @6 u9 R* q/ s( U- p% dwithout her help.
) o2 V$ l( ~! y, m  MCornwall, Connecticut
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