AP Chemistry FOR DUMmIES ebook 电子书代购

AP Chemistry FOR DUMmIES ebook 电子书代购
AP Chemistry FOR DUMmIES
by Peter Mikulecky,Michelle Rose Gilman,
and Kate Brutlag
Contents at a Glance
Introduction1
Part I: Thriving Inside the Test Tube:
How to Prepare for the Exam 5
Chapter 1: Knowing What You’re Up Against: The AP Chemistry Exam7
Chapter 2: Preparing Yourself for the Exam 15
Part II: Building Matter from the Ground Up:
Atoms and Bonding 21
Chapter 3: Looking Under the Atomic Hood: Atomic Structure23
Chapter 4: Answering Questions about Atomic Structure41
Chapter 5: Working and Playing Together: Bonding 47
Chapter 6: Answering Questions on Bonding59
Chapter 7: Doing Atomic Geometry: Molecular Shapes63
Chapter 8: Answering Questions on Molecular Shapes 75
Part III: Colliding Particles to Produce States81
Chapter 9: Putting a Finger to the Wind: Gases83
Chapter 10: Answering Questions on Gases 91
Chapter 11: Condensing Particles: Solids, Liquids, and Solutions97
Chapter 12: Answering Questions on Solids, Liquids, and Solutions 115
Part IV: Transforming Matter in Reactions 127
Chapter 13: Reacting by the Numbers: Reactions and Stoichiometry 129
Chapter 14: Answering Questions on Reactions and Stoichiometry143
Chapter 15: Going Nowhere: Equilibrium153
Chapter 16: Answering Questions on Equilibrium161
Chapter 17: Giving and Taking in Solution: Acids and Bases167
Chapter 18: Answering Questions on Acids and Bases177
Chapter 19: Transferring Charge: OxidationReduction183
Chapter 20: Answering Questions on OxidationReduction 197
Chapter 21: Knowing Speed from Spontaneity: Kinetics and Thermodynamics207
Chapter 22: Answering Questions on Kinetics and Thermodynamics223
Part V: Describing Patterns and Predicting Properties233
Chapter 23: Knowing Chemistry When You See It: Descriptive Chemistry 235
Chapter 24: Answering Questions on Descriptive Chemistry 243
Chapter 25: Living with Carbon: Organic Chemistry251
Chapter 26: Answering Questions on Organic Chemistry 267
Part VI: Getting Wet and Dirty: Labs 271
Chapter 27: Knowing Your Way around the Lab: Equipment and Procedures273
Chapter 28: Taking the Tour: Recommended AP Experiments281
Part VII: Measuring Yields: Practice Tests299
Chapter 29: Practice Test One 301
Chapter 30: Practice Test Two323
Part VIII: The Part of Tens 349
Chapter 31: Ten Math Skills to Bring with You to the Exam 351
Chapter 32: Ten Critical Types of Chemistry Problems 357
Chapter 33: Ten Annoying Exceptions to Chemistry Rules 365
Index371
Table of Contents
Introduction 1
About This Book1
What You’re Not to Read1
Foolish Assumptions 2
How This Book is Organized2
Part I: Thriving Inside the Test Tube: How to Prepare for the Exam2
Part II: Building Matter from the Ground Up: Atoms and Bonding 2
Part III: Colliding Particles to Produce States3
Part IV: Transforming Matter in Reactions 3
Part V: Describing Patterns and Predicting Properties 3
Part VI: Getting Wet and Dirty: Labs 3
Part VII: Measuring Yields: Practice Tests 3
Part VIII: Part of Tens4
Icons Used in This Book4
Where to Go from Here4
Part I: Thriving Inside the Test Tube:
How to Prepare for the Exam5
Chapter 1: Knowing What You’re Up Against: The AP Chemistry Exam7
Seeing If You Have the Right Stuff 7
Knowing the Breakdown — So You Don’t Have One! 8
Making your way through multiplechoice questions: Section 1 8
Taking on freeresponse questions: Section 2 9
Tackling the Topics Covered 9
Understanding the AP Test Questions 10
Making sense of multiple choice 11
Finagling the freeresponse questions12
Getting the Skinny on the Scoring13
Chapter 2: Preparing Yourself for the Exam15
Taking Your Tools to the Test15
Packing what you need15
Knowing what not to bring16
Needing Special Attention16
Using LongTerm Strategies for Training and Survival 17
Early planning 17
Midyear planning18
Uptotheminute planning 18
Feeling Confident: It’s All in Your Head 18
Anticipating the outcome19
Remembering: This is a test This is only a test19
Surviving During the Test with These Four StressBusters 19
Counting to four 19
Stretching 19
Practicing visualization 20
Stop, drop, and, change your mind20
Part II: Building Matter from the Ground Up:
Atoms and Bonding21
Chapter 3: Looking Under the Atomic Hood: Atomic Structure23
Picking Apart Atoms and the Periodic Table23
Getting a gander at what makes up an atom 23
Classifying elements with mass and atomic numbers25
Grouping elements within the periodic table 25
Rummaging through reactivity in the periodic table27
Rounding up the atomic radius in the periodic table27
Exercising Electrons: Ions and Electron Configuration30
Knowing which elements gain or lose electrons30
Figuring out electron configuration 30
Noting exceptions to the Aufbau filling diagram32
Writing out electron configuration32
Locating electrons with quantum numbers33
Isolating Info on Isotopes34
Calculating the remainder of a radioisotope 34
Calculating the average mass of an element35
Running into Radioactivity 36
Alpha decay37
Beta decay37
Gamma decay38
Getting Electrons Excited38
Excited state38
Converting energies to wavelengths39
Emission spectra 40
Chapter 4: Answering Questions about Atomic Structure41
Reinforcing the Foundation for Atomic Structure 41
Testing Your Knowledge43
Checking Your Work 44
Chapter 5: Working and Playing Together: Bonding 47
Bringing Atoms Together: Bonding Basics 47
Attracting the opposite: Ionic bonds47
Sharing electrons: Covalent bonds 48
Keeping it solid with metals: Metallic bonding 48
Naming Names: Nomenclature, Formulas, and Percent Composition 49
Knitting names to formulas: Nomenclature 49
Naming binary compounds50
Calculating percent composition 52
Eyeing Ionic Bonds53
Considering Covalent Bonds 54
Sharing electrons or not 54
Getting to know structural formulas55
Measuring the strength of covalent bonds 55
Separating Charge: Polarity and Electronegativity55
Getting a grip on electronegativity 56
Digging into dipoles 57
xiv AP Chemistry For Dummies
Chapter 6: Answering Questions on Bonding 59
Brushing Up on Bonding ForgetMeNots59
Testing Your Knowledge60
Checking Your Work 61
Chapter 7: Doing Atomic Geometry: Molecular Shapes63
Drawing Dots and Lines with Lewis63
Drawing electron dot structures 63
Constructing Lewis structures 64
Getting bonds straight with line structures65
Rummaging through resonance structures 66
Overlapping Orbitals to Form Valence Bonds67
Getting a grasp on valence bond theory68
Shaping up with the VSEPR theory69
Polarity and Isomers72
Polarity 73
Isomers 74
Chapter 8: Answering Questions on Molecular Shapes 75
Shaping Up the High Points 75
Electron dot structures and Lewis structures75
Valence bond theory76
VSEPR theory76
Bond dipoles 76
Isomers 77
Testing Your Knowledge77
Checking Your Work 79
Part III: Colliding Particles to Produce States 81
Chapter 9: Putting a Finger to the Wind: Gases 83
Moving and Bouncing: Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases83
The basics of kinetic theory 84
Statistics in kinetic theory 84
Aspiring to Gassy Perfection: Ideal Gas Behavior 86
Boyle’s Law86
Charles’s Law 87
The Combined and Ideal Gas Laws 87
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures88
Graham’s Law and diffusion88
Getting Real: Nonideal Gas Behavior89
Chapter 10: Answering Questions on Gases 91
Doing a Quick Review 91
Testing Your Knowledge92
Checking Your Work 95
Chapter 11: Condensing Particles: Solids, Liquids, and Solutions97
Restricting Motion: Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids 97
Getting a Firm Grip on Solids99
Different Types of Solids and Their Properties 99
Packing order in solids 99
Forces at work in condensed states 100
Table of Contents xv
Moving Through States with Phase Diagrams101
Phases and phase diagrams101
Changing phase and temperature along heating curves103
Dissolving with Distinction: Solubility and Types of Solutions104
Forces in solvation 104
To dissolve or not to dissolve: Solubility106
Heat effects on solubility106
Pressure effects on gas solubility106
Measuring solute concentration 107
Dissolving with Perfection: Ideal Solutions and Colligative Properties 108
Understanding ideal solutions109
Using molality to predict colligative properties109
Dissolving with Reality: Nonideal Solutions 113
Chapter 12: Answering Questions on Solids, Liquids, and Solutions115
Getting a Grip on What Not to Forget115
Kinetic theory 115
Solid states 116
Condensed states 116
Phase diagrams116
Solutions117
Reporting the concentration of a solute 118
Testing Your Knowledge118
Checking Your Work 122
Part IV: Transforming Matter in Reactions 127
Chapter 13: Reacting by the Numbers: Reactions and Stoichiometry 129
Stoichiometry Lingo: How to Decipher Chemical Reactions 130
Building and Breaking: Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions 131
Synthesis 131
Decomposition131
Swapping Spots: Displacement Reactions 132
Single replacement132
Double replacement132
Burning Up: Combustion Reactions133
Getting Sour: AcidBase Reactions133
Getting Charged: OxidationReduction Reactions 134
The Stoichiometry Underground: Moles134
Counting your particles: The mole 134
Assigning mass and volume to your particles135
Giving credit where it’s due: Percent composition136
Checking out empirical formulas 136
Differentiating between empirical formulas and molecular formulas137
Keeping the SeeSaw Straight: Balancing Reaction Equations 138
How to use coefficients 138
Conversions 139
Getting rid of mere spectators: Net ionic equations141
Running Out Early: Limiting Reagents141
Having Something to Show for Yourself: Percent Yield142
xvi AP Chemistry For Dummies
Chapter 14: Answering Questions on Reactions and Stoichiometry 143
Making Sure You React to Questions with the Right Answers 143
Knowing reactions when you see them143
Dealing with the numbers that flow from stoichiometry144
Testing Your Knowledge145
Multiple choice 146
Free response148
Checking Your Work 149
Chapter 15: Going Nowhere: Equilibrium153
Shifting Matter: An Overview of Chemical Equilibrium 153
Predicting Shifts with Le Chatelier’s Principle 154
Measuring Equilibrium: the Equilibrium Constant 156
Understanding the Equilibrium Constant, Keq 156
Using Keq to solve problems158
Specializing Equilibrium: Constants for Different Reaction Types159
Chapter 16: Answering Questions on Equilibrium161
Leveling Out the Facts on Equilibrium161
Defining equilibrium 161
Predicting the shifting 162
Special constants163
Testing Your Knowledge163
Multiple choice 163
Free response165
Checking Your Work 165
Chapter 17: Giving and Taking in Solution: Acids and Bases 167
Thinking Acidly: Three Different Ways to Define AcidBase Behavior 167
Method 1: Arrhenius sticks to the basics168
Method 2: Br?nstedLowry tackles bases without a hydroxide ion 168
Method 3: Lewis relies on electron pairs 169
Describing AcidBase Equilibria with Constants170
Measuring Acidity and Basicity with pH171
Taking It One Proton at a Time: Titration 172
Neutralizing equivalents173
Titrating with equivalents 173
Keeping Steady: Buffers 175
Chapter 18: Answering Questions on Acids and Bases 177
Soaking Up the Main Points 177
Knowing and measuring acids and bases 177
Reacting acids and bases 178
Practice Questions179
Multiple choice 179
Free response180
Answers with Explanations180
Chapter 19: Transferring Charge: OxidationReduction 183
Using Oxidation Numbers to Recognize Redox Reactions 183
Respecting the Hyphen: OxidationReduction HalfReactions185
Balancing under acidic conditions185
Balancing under basic conditions186
Table of Contents xvii
Keeping Current: Electrochemical Cells187
Navigating voltaic cells188
Flowing through electrolytic cells190
Calculating EMF and standard cell potentials 191
Using Concentration and Standard Cell Potentials to Predict Results 192
Predicting Spontaneity with standard cell potentials 193
Tying electricity to chemistry: The Faraday constant 194
Bringing it all together with the Nernst equation 194
Chapter 20: Answering Questions on OxidationReduction197
Remembering the Rules of Engagement 197
Following the flow of charge in redox197
Balancing redox reaction equations 198
Testing Your Knowledge199
Checking Your Work 203
Chapter 21: Knowing Speed from Spontaneity: Kinetics and Thermodynamics 207
Getting There Rapidly or Slowly: Kinetics and Reaction Rates207
Measuring and Calculating with Rates 209
Changing Rates: Factors That Alter Kinetics211
Seeing rate changes in terms of collisions211
Relating rate to activation energy212
Using Rates to Determine Mechanisms213
Getting There at All: Thermodynamics and State Functions 214
Adding Up the Energies: Free Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy215
Measuring Heat: Thermochemistry and Calorimetry 217
Seeing heat within the bigger energy picture 217
Using heat capacity in calorimetry219
Dealing with Heat by Using Hess’s Law220
Chapter 22: Answering Questions on Kinetics and Thermodynamics223
Picking through the Important Points223
Important points about rates 223
Important points about thermodynamics225
Testing Your Knowledge226
Multiple choice 226
Answers with Explanations229
Part V: Describing Patterns and Predicting Properties 233
Chapter 23: Knowing Chemistry When You See It: Descriptive Chemistry235
Using Your Senses: Qualitative Aspects of Common Reaction Types235
Precipitation reactions 235
Gasreleasing reactions237
Metals and metal hydride reactions 237
Combustion reactions237
Oxide reactions238
Colored compounds238
Acids and bases238
Surveying the Table: Predicting Properties and Reactivity239
Reading trends across the table 239
Finding patterns in columns and rows 241
xviii AP Chemistry For Dummies
Chapter 24: Answering Questions on Descriptive Chemistry 243
Keeping the Important Stuff Straight243
Precipitation reactions 243
Patterns of common reaction types244
Periodic trends and group properties 244
Testing Your Knowledge245
Checking Your Work 249
Chapter 25: Living with Carbon: Organic Chemistry 251
Naming Names: Nomenclature and Properties of Hydrocarbons251
Starting with straightchain alkanes — linear hydrocarbons252
Going out on a limb: Making branched alkanes by substitution253
Getting unsaturated: Alkenes and alkynes255
Rounding ’em Up: Circling Carbons with Cyclics and Aromatics 256
Decorating Skeletons: Organic Functional Groups257
Alcohols: Hosting a hydroxide258
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